a) John Said that he was not going to school
b) When he came John tripped over the blocks.
Back-referential pronouns, such as the pronoun in example a, are called anaphora. Forward -referential pronouns, such as the one in example b, are called cataphora.
the pronouns- they/them, can refer to people or to facts in the text.
The pronoun it, refers to objects, animals, ideas, places, thoughts, emotions. Its value is neutral and represents a singular element.
Demonstratives: this / that or these / those
Adverbs of place: here, there;
Question words: when, where, what, which, who
* This book is intended for student who are studying ESP.
* The monkey took the banana and ate it. "It" is anaphoric under the strict definition (it refers to the banana).
* Pam went home because she felt sick. "She" is anaphoric (it refers to Pam).
* What is this? "This" can be considered exophoric (it refers to some object or situation near the speaker).
* The dog ate the bird and it died. "It" is anaphoric and ambiguous (did the dog or bird die?)
* I went home to take a nap because I thought it would make the headache go away. "it" is anaphoric (refers to the nap)
Identifying reference in a text
- Look for an article related to your field of expertise. Use Google, write key words related to a topic you want to read about.
- Write a post in your blog. Introduce the topic of the article. Make sure to add the link where you got it from. Write a short summary of the article. Say what it is about.Give your opinion about it.
- Select two paragraphs from your article and copy them in your blog.
- Look for the referential elements in the two paragraphs.
Keep on shining love and peace!